Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)/Mustard family : Morphological Diversity

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)/Mustard family : Morphological Diversity

    The Brassicaceae are predominately herbacious and only rarely are under shrubs.

Class- Dicotyledonae

        Subclass– Polypetalae

          Series– Thalamiflorae

            Order– Parietales

               Family- Brassicaceae

  • Brassicaceae Include about 375 genera and 3200 species distributed widely in north temperate regions of the world
    -in India- 51 genera and 138 species
    Familiar plants :
    Brassica campestris (sarson)
    Raphanus sativus (radish)
    Brassica rapa(turnip)
    B. oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)
    B.oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)
    Iberis
    B. juncea( Indian mustard, Rai)
    Coronopus didymus

Family Description of Brassicaceae

Distribution-

Includes 375 genera and 3000 species distributes widely in north temperate regions.

Selected Indian Genera- Brassica, Capsella, Raphanus, Iberis, Coronopus.

Habit:

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby having smelling watery juice. Perrennial herb with pungent watery sap, herbaceaous covered with unicellular stellate hair.

Corolla- cruciform

Stamen- tetradynamous

Fruit- siliqua or silicula

  •  Annual (Brassica campestris, Coronopus)
  • biennial (Raphanus sativus, Brassica rapa) or perenial herbs
  • Rarely shrubs
  • Produce pungent watery juice rich in sulphur

Root :

• Tap root. Some gets swollen for food storage and become;

• Fusiform (Radish) • Napiform (Turnip)

Stem :

•Herbaceous

• Erect

• Cylindrical

• Often reduced (radish, turnip)

Leaf

• Simple

• Sessile

• Often dissected

• Cauline and ramal

• Alternate (rarely opposite)

• Exstipulate

  Inflorescence

• Typically racemose

• Corymb in Iberis

Flower

  • Ebracteate ,ebrateolate
  • Pedicellate
  • Complete
  • Hermaphrodite
  • Cyclic
  • Actinomorphic (zygo in Iberis)
  • Tetramerous
  • Hypogynous

Cylax

  • Sepals 4
  • Polysepalous
  • Arranged in 2 whorls of each

Corolla

  • Petals 4
  • Polypetalous
  • Cruciform
  • Alternate with sepals
  • Clawed
  • Petals reduced or scaly (Coronopus)

Androecium

  • Stamens 6, in 2 whorls 2+4 (2 in coronopusdidymus)
  • Polyanderous
  • Tetradynamous
  • Anthers  usually  
  • Dithecous —Introse

Gynoecium

  • Bicarpellary
  • Syncarpous
  • Ovary superior
  • Unilocular but become bilocular due to false septum
  • Parietal placentation
  • Ovules many style 1

Fruit and seed

Siliqua or silicula

Floweral forumula

Brassica compestris

Habit:  Herbaceous, annual.

Root:   Tap Root system.

Stem:   Herbaceous , erect, cylindrical, solid, hairy (pubescent).

Leaf:     Ramal and Cauline, simple, alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, margin incised, hairy, unicostate, reticulate venation.

Brassica, mustard

Inflorescence: Raceme.

Flower: Ebracteate, pedicillate, actinomorphic, bisexual, complete, hypogynous and tetramerous.

Calyx: sepals 4, polysepalous, imbricate aestivation.

Corolla: petals 4, polypetalous, cruciform, clawed, aestivation valvate.

Androecium: Stamens 6,arranged in two whorls, outer two shorter, inner 4 stamens longer (Tetradynamous), anther bicelled, basifixed, introse.

Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior unilocular becomes bilocular due to the develpoment of false septum, placentation parietal, style short, stigma simple or bifid.

f;ower of Brassicaceae

Fruit : Siliqua.

Floral formula :

To know more about the Ranunculaceae : Morphological Diversity Of Families : Dicotyledons

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