Neural System And Its Functions In Chordates | Zoology Notes

Neural System And Its Functions In Chordates | Zoology Notes

The unit of nervous system are nerve cell or Neurons. Jump inside an know more about the Nervous system and its functions in chordates . In all multicellular animals above the level of sponges, the system meant to perceive stimuli detected by the receptors, to transmit these to various body parts, and to effect response effectors , is called neural system.

DIVISION OF NEURAL SYSTEM


The vertebrates nervous system has three divisions, a central nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.

Peripheral neural system

A peripheral nervous system consisting of 10 or 12 cranial and spinal nerves arising from the brain and spinal cord respectively. The peripheral nerve system consist of nerve made nerve fibers of nerve cell bodies located in brain, spinal cord, and ganglia. It provides the connecting links or lines of communication between the receptors, the central neural system, and the effectors.

Automatic neural system

An autonomic nervous system made of two ganglionated sympathetic nerves, ganglia in the head viscera, and their connecting nerves. In innervates smooth and cardiac muscles and glands. The automatic nerve system is often regarded as a part of the peripheral nervous system because the two are connected.

It is concerned with the involuntary or automatic body activities, such as the peristalsis of the alimentary canal and the beating of the heart. The autonomic nervous system consist of nerve cell bodies, their nerve fibers and nerve plexi. But all the three division of the nervous system are connected intimately both structurally and functionally.

Central neural system or CNS

It is consist of the brain and spinal cord. It coordinates the impulse received from brain and receptors and transmitted t the effectors to response. The central nervous system is made of nerve cell bodies forming the grey matter and of nervous fiber tracts which form the white matter.

Functional divisions of the Neural System

In vertebrates, it is highly specialized and plays at least three vital role :

The body functions of nervous system or somatic or visceral. Somatic function are those which are carried out by the voluntary muscle, skeleton, and the skin and its derivatives. Visceral functions are those which are performed by the digestive, circulatory, excretory, endocrine, and the urinogential system.

Response to stimuli

By responding to all sort of stimuli, it acquaints the organism with them so that the organism may react and orient itself favourably in the surrounding environment.

Coordination

Along with endocrine system, the neutral system also serves to coordinates and integrate the activities of various parts of the body they act harmoniously as a unit. this makes possible the integrated control the internal body environment. However , the neural system brings about repaid coordination by means of nerves, whereas the endocrine system does so gradually and slowly by secreting hormones into blood.

learning

By accumulating memories from past experiences, in higher vertebrates at least, the neural system as a center for learning.

the branch of medical science dealing with the structure, function and disease of neural system is called neurology.

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