Ranunculaceae : Morphological Diversity Of Families : Dicotyledons / Notes. the best and knowledge about this topic so jump inside and taste the valuable and satisfying material.
There are about 50 genera and over 1900 species distributed mainly in north temperate zone
• In India the family is represented by 20 genera and 154 species
• Familiar examples are :–
Vegetative character of Ranunculaceae
•Mainly annual or perennial herbs
• Leaves are alternate( Ranunculus and Delphinium) or opposite (Clematis) and exstipulate
• Simple and palmately lobed (Ranunculus) or decompound (Delphinium) and pinnately compound (Clematis)
INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWER
• Inflorescence variable
Solitary and terminal in Anemone and Nigella
Long raceme in Delphinium
• Arranged in dichasial cyme in Ranunculus
Flowers – Bracteate(Ranunculus,Thalictrum)
• Hermaphrodite(unisexual in Thalictrum)
• Actinomorphic (zygomorphic in Delphinium)
• Pentamarous and hypogynous
• Floral parts arranged spirally
• Involucre of green leaves is present outside the calyx in Anemone and Nigella
• Consist of 5-8 sepals , distinct.
• In Delphinium the sepals are petaloid and posterior sepal is spurred
• Aestivation is valvate or imbricate
• Consist of 5 free , symmetrical (Ranunculus) or irregular (Delphinium) petals
• In Anemone petals are altogether absent and the sepals become petaloid
• Consist of many , polyandrous and spirally arranged stamens.
• In some genera like Helleborus , Nigella and Aquilegia the stamens are arranged in definite rings.
• The anthers are adnate , dithecous ,
• Usually of numerous free carpels arranged spirally on a distinct thalamus but in some taxa the number of carpels is definite, for example –Aquilegia : 5 carpels –Delphinium : 3-1 carpels.
• The ovary is superior , unilocular and has one to many anatropus ovules
• The plancentation may be basal (Ranunculus) or marginal (Delphinium)
• The stigma and style are one.
Fruit and Seed
• Fruit is usually a group of few to many seeded
• Capsule in Nigella
• In Clematis achene have long persistent feathery styles
• Seed has endosperm and a minute straight embryo.
In Ranunculaceae the flowers are protandrous and are adapted for insect pollination
• Mostly annual herb
• Root is
• Ramal (leaves borne on lateral branches) and cauline (leaves borne on main stem)
• Lamina much dissected
• Each lobe is ovate
• Multicostate reticulate
• Yellow in colour
• Sepals 5
• Quincuncial aestivation
• Yellowish green in colour
• Petals 5
• Imbricate aestivation
• Bright yellow in
• Each petal has a pocket –shaped nectary at the base
Fruit of Ranunculus
Fruit is usually a group of fewto many seeded folicles or a group of one seeded achenes (ranunculus)
Capsule in Nigella, In Clematis achenes (uniloculor ovary with single ovule)
Bracteate, Bracteol, Actinomorphic, Hermophrodite, Calyx 5(k5), Corolla (c5), Androecioum infinite, Gynoecioum infinite (superior ovary)
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