Ranunculaceae : Morphological Diversity Of Families : Dicotyledons

Ranunculaceae : Morphological Diversity Of Families : Dicotyledons

Ranunculaceae : Morphological Diversity Of Families : Dicotyledons / Notes. the best and knowledge about this topic so jump inside and taste the valuable and satisfying material.

Systemic Position:

Class: Dicotyledonae

Subclass: Polypetalae

Series: Thalamiflorae

Order: Ranales

Family: Ranunculaceae

Genus: Ranunculus

Species: sceleratus 

Distribution

There are about 50 genera and over 1900 species distributed mainly in north temperate zone

• In India the family is represented by 20 genera and 154 species

• Familiar examples are :–

Ranunculus

Delphinium

ranunculus, delphiinium,

Clematis

Anemone Nigella 

clematis and anemone


Nigella 

nigella

Vegetative character of Ranunculaceae

•Mainly annual or perennial herbs

• Leaves are alternate( Ranunculus and Delphinium) or opposite (Clematis) and exstipulate

• Simple and palmately lobed (Ranunculus) or decompound (Delphinium) and pinnately compound (Clematis)

INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWER

• Inflorescence variable

Solitary and terminal in Anemone and Nigella

Long raceme in Delphinium

• Arranged in dichasial cyme in Ranunculus

Flowers – Bracteate(Ranunculus,Thalictrum)

• Hermaphrodite(unisexual in Thalictrum)

• Actinomorphic (zygomorphic in Delphinium)

• Pentamarous and hypogynous

• Floral parts arranged spirally

• Involucre of green leaves is present outside the calyx in Anemone and Nigella

Calyx

• Consist of 5-8 sepals , distinct.

• In Delphinium the sepals are petaloid and posterior sepal is spurred

• Aestivation is valvate or imbricate

Corolla

• Consist of 5 free , symmetrical (Ranunculus) or irregular (Delphinium) petals

• In Anemone petals are altogether absent and the sepals become petaloid

Androecium

• Consist of many , polyandrous and spirally arranged stamens.

• In some genera like Helleborus , Nigella and Aquilegia the stamens are arranged in definite rings.

• The anthers are adnate , dithecous ,extrose and dehiscing longitudinally

androecium of Ranunculaceae

Gynoecium

• Usually of numerous free carpels arranged spirally on a distinct  thalamus but in some taxa the number of carpels is definite, for example –Aquilegia : 5 carpels –Delphinium : 3-1 carpels.

• The ovary is superior , unilocular and has one to many anatropus ovules

• The plancentation may be basal (Ranunculus) or marginal (Delphinium)

• The stigma and style are one.

gynoecium of Ranunculaceae

Fruit and Seed

• Fruit is usually a group of few to many seeded follicle or a group of one seeded achenes (Ranunculus)

• Capsule in Nigella

• In Clematis achene have long persistent feathery styles

• Seed has endosperm and a minute straight embryo.

fruit and seed of Ranunculaceae

Pollination

In Ranunculaceae the flowers are protandrous and are adapted for insect pollination

Ranunculus scelaratus

• Mostly annual herb

• Root is Tap root, branched

• Stem is :

• Herbaceous, 

• Aerial,

Erect ,

Branched,

• Glabrous,

• Green colored

Leaf is: 

• Ramal (leaves borne on lateral branches) and cauline (leaves borne on main stem)

• Simple

• Alternate

• Petiolate

Exstipulate

• Lamina much dissected

• Each lobe is ovate

• Multicostate reticulate

• Glabrous

LEAVES of Ranunculaceae , flower of Ranunculaceae

Flower

• Pedicellate

• Bracteate

• Bracteolate

• Complete

• Hermaphrodite

• Actinomorphic

• Hypogynous

• Pentamerous

• Yellow in colour

flower of Ranunculaceae

Calyx :

• Sepals 5

• Polysepalous

• Quincuncial aestivation

• Yellowish green in colour

• Boat-shaped

calyx of Ranunculaceae

Corolla:

• Petals 5

• Polypetalous

• Imbricate aestivation

corolla of Ranunculaceae

• Bright yellow in colour

• Obovate

• Each petal has a pocket –shaped nectary at the base

Fruit of Ranunculus

Fruit is usually a group of fewto many seeded folicles or a group of one seeded achenes (ranunculus)

Capsule in Nigella, In Clematis achenes (uniloculor ovary with single ovule)

fruit of Ranunculaceae

Floral formula

Bracteate, Bracteol, Actinomorphic, Hermophrodite, Calyx 5(k5), Corolla (c5), Androecioum infinite, Gynoecioum infinite (superior ovary)

floral diagram of Ranunculaceae

To know about the Brassicaceae CLICK HERE

Leave a Reply

Close Menu